Matches 101 to 150 of 28,171

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101 After Eliza's death, the two oldest children, Charles and Martha were raised by Eliza's sister and brother-in-law, Mary Morris Estes and David Spurlock. The next daughter, "Drucie", was raised by Jerry Rogers and his wife, Elizabeth Cyler.

The baby girl, Eliza Matilda, called Johnny Eliza after both her fatherand mother, was taken by horseback on a pillow by her cousin, Robert Archibald Spurlock, who was age 20, son of her mothers sister, Mary Morris Estes Spurlock, to the home of her uncle Thomas Newton Estes, near Melbourne, Izard County, Arkansas. She was raised by her uncle Tommy and Granny as she learned to call them. 
Estes, Anna Eliza (I9401)
102 Age 16 Family F5372
103 Age 68, of Elk River Passed away peacefully surrounded by his family on Sept. 6, 2015. Preceded in death by his father, Emery; wife, Judith. Survived by his mother, Bernice; children, Matthew (Jennifer) of Aberdeen, NC, Rachael (Robert) Folsom of Reston, VA, and Gregory of Maplewood; grandchildren, Devin & Mackenzie Peden, Sara & Robbie Folsom; brothers, Butch, Jim, and Jeff; many nieces, nephews, relatives, and friends. Visitation will begin at 10AM Thursday, Sept. 10 at Central Lutheran Church, 1103 School St NW, Elk River, followed by a memorial service at 11AM. Interment MN State Veteran's Cemetery, Fort Ripley, Little Falls. Memorials preferred to the «u»American Cancer Society «/u». 763-441-1212

Published in Pioneer Press on Sept. 8, 2015
Peden, Steven Earl (I45289)
104 Albert Beckett 37, Beckett, Albert (I21445)
105 Alexander Peden was born about 1626 at Sorn in Ayrshire. After University, he became schoolmaster at Tarbolton, where Guthrie was then minister. He was also precentor and clerk of session to the same church.
He was ordained about 1658 to the charge of New Luce, in Galloway. The Restoration of 1660, followed by the persecution, led to Peden's departure from his parish. As he left the pulpit for the last time having preached on Paul's address to the elders at Miletus, he closed the door, and knocking three times on it, repeated three times: 'I arrest thee, in my Master's name, that none ever enter thee but such as come in by the door, as I have done.' Strange to say, none of the curates ever entered that pulpit.
After the Revolution, a Presbyterian minister opened it and preached to a large congregation. Peden then became a wanderer. In 1666 a proclamation was issued against him by the Council, because he had held conventicles and administered baptism. Should he refuse to obey, he would have forfeited his life. For about seven years, he evaded his persecutors, having hidden for a part of the time in Ireland.
In 1673, he was taken prisoner to Edinburgh and sent for confinement to the Bass. Five years later sentence of banishment was pronounced against him. But at Gravesend, all the prisoners were liberated, and at once returned to Scotland. Under various disguises he struggled to survive spending much time in Ireland. On one occasion he hired himself as a servant.
In 1685 he came back to Scotland, evidently willing to share in the honourable sufferings of the persecuted remnant there. As the ship on which he was crossing to Scotland lay becalmed, Peden prayed: 'Lord, give us a loof-full of wind; fill the sails, Lord, and give us a fresh gale, and let us have a swift and safe passage over to the bloody land, come of us what will.' The winds came while he prayed, filled the sails, and carried the vessel to Scotland. As he parted from his fellow passengers on landing, he said: 'My soul trembles to think what will become of the indulged, backslidden, and upset ministers of Scotland: as the Lord lives, none of them shall be honoured to put a right pin in the Lord's tabernacle, or assert Christ's kingly prerogative as Head and King of His Church.'
At this time he met with many remarkable deliverances from those hunting him. Several horse and foot soldiers came once close to him and a number of companions. A slight elevation of ground coming in the course of the pursuit between them and their pursuers, Peden called a halt, and uttered this memorable prayer, 'Lord, it is Thy enemy's day, hour, and power; they may not be idle, but hast Thou no other work for them but to send them after us? Send them after them to whom Thou wilt give strength to flee, for our strength is gone. Twine them about the hill, Lord, and cast the lap of Thy cloak over Old Sandy and these poor things, and save us this one time, and we will keep it in remembrance, and tell it to the commendation of Thy goodness, pity, and compassion, what Thou didst for us at such a time.' A mist covered the hill, and Peden and his friends were safe.
As the end of his life drew near, Peden took himself to his home parish of Sorn - to a near relative who lived there, but still he could not frequent his friend's house, and for safety he had a cave dug for himself, and a bush placed as a covering over the cave's mouth. That cave was the House of God and the Gate of Heaven. It was here that he left his last charges with his friends regarding the cause of Christ in the land. Some short time before his death, Peden had an interview with James Renwick. 'Before you go,' said Peden at the close of the interview, 'you must pray for me, for I am old, and going to leave the world.' After Renwick prayed, Peden drew him near and kissed him, and said, 'Sir, I find you a faithful servant to your Master. Go on in single dependence on the Lord, and you will get honestly through.' Then Peden prayed fervently as he alone could pray, that the God of Jacob would be Renwick's defence, a covering for his head in the day of battle. A few days afterwards, this tempest-tossed saint cast anchor in the haven of eternal rest.

Peden, Rev. Alexander The Prophet (I16743)
106 Alexander Peden was born in 1626 at Auchencloich Farm, Sorn in Ayrshire, the son of a small land-owner. He studied arts and divinity at Glasgow University from where he returned to his native Ayrshire to take up the position of schoolmaster at Tarbolton. The minister of the parish at that time was John Guthrie, a notable Covenanter in his own right and brother of William Guthrie the renowned minister of Fenwick. Peden would soon follow them into the ministry and in 1659 he was ordained at New Luce in Wigtonshire. However, this ministry was short-lived and like many ministers of the time including Hugh Crawford of New Cumnock, he was ejected from his charge. «tab»

His church became the hills and the moorsides of south-west Scotland .His congregation swoll to numbers that no building could hold as his reputation as a field-preacher spread throughout the land. His pulpits were often a moss- covered boulders many of which have passed into local folklore as 'Peden's Stanes' , like the one in the neighbouring parish of Kirkconnel in Dumfriesshire. «tab»

Peden was outlawed in 1666 and he had to take special precautions to avoid detection by informants as he trudged throughout the upland parishes from conventicle to conventicle. One form of disguise was his famous 'fawse-face and wig' which from a distance would confuse even the most alert spy ! «tab»

In 1673, however, he was finally captured at a house-conventicle at Knockdow, Ayrshire and then imprisoned on the Bass Rock, in the Firth of Forth, where he remained for four and half years. In one his letters from the Rock he woefully relates 'We are close shut up by our chambers: not permitted to converse, diet , worship together'. The contrast with the realtive freedom of the expansive uplands and moors of his native Ayrshire engaged in Christian worship with his fellow Covenanters must surely have eaten at his soul. A further year of imprisonment in the Tolbooth at Edinburgh followed before he was sentenced to banishment for life in the plantations of America. Along with others to suffer the same fate he was shipped from Leith to London. However, the captain of the connecting ship to Virginia could not stomach such an unholy act on such a pious group of Presybyterians. Peden made good his escape and would spend half a year in England and then later some time in Ireland before returning to his calling of field-preaching in his homeland of Scotland. «tab»

Peden's powers and reputation went beyond that of field-preaching. Traditions handed down often allude to his shamanistic qualities perhaps better associated with the great bards of the Dark Ages. He could call upon the Lord to 'cast the lap of Thy cloak ower auld Sandy and thir poor things and save us this one time' and a hill mist would descend concealing Peden and his fellow conventiclers from advancing dragoons. He had the gift of the second-sight earning him the accolade of 'Prophet of the Covenant' but too often his visions were filled with impending grief and perphaps none more so than that associated with John Brown, the Christian Carrier. «tab»

On the day he performed the marriage of John Brown and Isabel Weir at the farm of Priesthill he prophecised to the new bride 'You have got a good man to be your husband, but you will not enjoy him long; prize his company and keep linen by you to be his winding sheet, for you will need it when ye are not looking for it, and it will be a bloody one'. John Brown's life indeed came to a bloody end. He was shot on the spot at Priesthill by Graham of Claverhouse or 'Bluidy Clavers' in full view of his wife and family and sadly another of Auld Sandy's prophecy came to past! The years of field-preaching and imprisonment finally took their toll on 'puir Auld Sandy' and he returned to his native Ayrshire to die. Still an outlaw he concealed himself in a cave on the Lugar Water near to a farm called Tenshillingside his brother had rented at in the parish of Auchinleck. Government troops were garrisoned at nearby Sorn Castle and would subject Tenshillingside to thorough searches on a regular basis with little success. Peden left his little cave for the last time to spend his last few days at his brother's house where he died on 26th January 1686, aged 60 years old. Boswell, the Laird of Auchinleck permitted the corpse of the Prophet to be laid rest in the family tomb in Auchinleck Kirkyard. Some 6 weeks later, Peden's body was taken by the dragoons to be hanged from the gibbet on the Gallows hill at Cumnock, an unholy act of contempt. The Covenanters' monument standing proudly adjacent to the Boswell Mausoleum tells the story... «tab»


Murray, in charge of the dragoons was intent on having Peden's decaying body hanged in public view. However, the Earl of Dumfries, as Baron Crichton of Cumnock would not permit such a despicable act, claiming that the gallows had been erected for common criminals and not for men of the standing of Alexander Peden. Murray reluctantly complied but still craving his pound of flesh insisted that Peden's body would be buried on the gallows-hill. Peden's body was finally laid to rest along side the Covenanting Martyrs, David Dun and Simon Paterson (captured on Corsgellioch hill , New Cumnock) and Thomas Richard an 80 year-old farmer of Greenock Mains, Muirkirk, all executed here the previous year. «tab»

The people of Cumnock now looked upon the gallows-hill in a different light and considered it as a sacred place. A few years later the Earl of Dumfries had finally given up any hopes of reversing the decision made in 1650 to split the parish of Cumnock into the two new parishes of Old Cumnock and New Cumnock. The parish of Old Cumnock required a new burial ground and the townsfolk could see no further than the hallowed ground where Peden lay. The tombstones of Peden, Paterson, Dun and Richard can still be found in what is now the old cemetery in Barrhill, Cumnock encircled by the gravestones of generations of Cumnock families, a testimony to their wishes to lie in peace beside the Prophet of the Covenant. «tab»


ALEXANDER PEDEN and NEW CUMNOCK There are no Covenanting traditions, monuments, caves or Peden Stanes that directly link Alexander Peden with the parish of New Cumnock. However, since this upland parish sits strategically at the head of Nithsdale where the Afton Water flowed into the River Nith it is unimaginable to think that Peden was not a frequent visitor to the hills, moors and farm-houses of New Cumnock. Whether conducting conventicles, seeking refuge or simply passing through en-route between his native Sorn and his church at Glen Luce, 'puir Auld Sandy' would undoubtedly have been known to people of this young parish. Alexander Peden was unmarried and as such he had no direct descendants. However, the Peden family name survived and is subject to intensive genealogical research. Studies suggest that Alexander had at least two brothers, Hugh the tenant of Tenshillingside Farm where Peden died, and Mungo or Mongo Pethein as recorded in a Peden family bible.«tab»

Peden, Rev. Alexander The Prophet (I16743)
107 Alt marriage date 20 Jul 1878. Family F9746
108 Although technically born in an "unorganized territory" the exact place later became known as "Pine Bluffs, Laramie County, Wyoming, USA" Hill, Isabella Hood (I20106)
109 Although this copy was made approximately 1909, the original roll is dated 1851.
This copy was made to investigate the claims of applicants on Guion Miller's roll of Eastern Cherokee who hoped to establish their eligibility from the earlier 1851 roll. 
Source (S2931)
110 Ancestry One World Tree says they were married in "Rockingham, , VA", but I can't find a Rockingham city or county in VA or WV. Family F9702
111 Applications submitted for shares of the money that was appropriated for the Eastern Cherokee Indians by Congress on 30 June 1906. Source (S2928)
112 Back (row 4): Clarence Edward Fuller; William Oscar Fain; Mary Hattie Estes; William Walter Paden; Lindsay Robert Paden; Joseph Earl Paden; Otis Arthur Paden (holding Martha Louise Paden).

Middle (row 3): Emma Alice Paden; Cora Bertha Paden; Edna Jane Paden; Dora Hoffman Fowler.

Middle (row2): John William Paden; Henry Clifton Paden; Wayman Oscar Fain; William Lee Fain; Carronia Vernetta Paden; Martha Elizabeth Finley.

Front (row1): Clarence Herman Paden; Owen Howard Fain; Otis Fowler Paden; Fred Luther Fuller; Ruby Jane Fain. 
Paden, Otis Fowler "Bob" (I9)
113 Back (row 4): Clarence Edward Fuller; William Oscar Fain; Mary Hattie Estes; William Walter Paden; Lindsay Robert Paden; Joseph Earl Paden; Otis Arthur Paden (holding Martha Louise Paden).

Middle (row 3): Emma Alice Paden; Cora Bertha Paden; Edna Jane Paden; Dora Hoffman Fowler.

Middle (row2): John William Paden; Henry Clifton Paden; Wayman Oscar Fain; William Lee Fain; Carronia Vernetta Paden; Martha Elizabeth Finley.

Front (row1): Clarence Herman Paden; Owen Howard Fain; Otis Fowler Paden; Fred Luther Fuller; Ruby Jane Fain. 
Paden, Otis Arthur (I17)
114 Back (row 4): Clarence Edward Fuller; William Oscar Fain; Mary Hattie Estes; William Walter Paden; Lindsay Robert Paden; Joseph Earl Paden; Otis Arthur Paden (holding Martha Louise Paden).

Middle (row 3): Emma Alice Paden; Cora Bertha Paden; Edna Jane Paden; Dora Hoffman Fowler.

Middle (row2): John William Paden; Henry Clifton Paden; Wayman Oscar Fain; William Lee Fain; Carronia Vernetta Paden; Martha Elizabeth Finley.

Front (row1): Clarence Herman Paden; Owen Howard Fain; Otis Fowler Paden; Fred Luther Fuller; Ruby Jane Fain. 
Paden, Lindsay Robert (I28)
115 Back (row 4): Clarence Edward Fuller; William Oscar Fain; Mary Hattie Estes; William Walter Paden; Lindsay Robert Paden; Joseph Earl Paden; Otis Arthur Paden (holding Martha Louise Paden).

Middle (row 3): Emma Alice Paden; Cora Bertha Paden; Edna Jane Paden; Dora Hoffman Fowler.

Middle (row2): John William Paden; Henry Clifton Paden; Wayman Oscar Fain; William Lee Fain; Carronia Vernetta Paden; Martha Elizabeth Finley.

Front (row1): Clarence Herman Paden; Owen Howard Fain; Otis Fowler Paden; Fred Luther Fuller; Ruby Jane Fain. 
Finley, Martha Elizabeth (I29)
116 Because there were so many crossroads there, James A. Copeland, an early settler, chose the name Crossville. Copeland, James Alexander (I702)
117 Believe he likely served in the CSA as a First Lieutenant under name of
Isaac W. Armstrong in Captain Perry Clayton's Company, 30-Day
Volunteers. This company was raised in response to Colonel Borland's
call of November 5, 1861,mustered into the Confederate service on
November 9, 1861, for 30 days, and discharged on December 9, 1861, at
Pitman's Ferry, Arkansas. This information obtained from Bryan R.
Howerton, found at Also on
this roster were Richard DeKalb Armstrong; Robert G. and William T.
Richey (sic).
Isaac Huntley Armstrong went on to serve in Co. D, 8th AR Cavalry, along
with his father Richard Dickson Armstrong (also in Co. D) and his younger
brother David Mastin Armstrong (in Co. I). Isaac was captured a few
weeks after his father and then his brother were captured (see below);
Isaac's capture was on 22 October 1864 at Big Blue, Missouri. He was
sent to the Union Military Prison at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, then to
Camp Morton, Indiana on 18 Dec 1864. He was released on oath 18 May
Isaac'sfather, Richard Dickson Armstrong, followed his son's suit by
enlisting as aprivate on 1 November 1862 in the CSA in Company B,
Morgan's Cavalry, Confederate States Army. He was wounded at Pilot Knob,
Missouri and captured at Ironton, Missouri on 27 September 1864. His son
David Armstrong was also serving in the CSA, enlisting at age 16 on 9
June 1864 in Co. I of Morgan's Cavalry, likely in order to serve in the
same unit as his father and his older brother. David was also wounded at
the Battle of Pilot Knob. Family story says that his wound was not
serious but he stayed on as a nurse in the Confederatehospital to care
for his father. If true, this could only have been for a matter of
days. David was also captured, on 12 October 1864, while in the
Confederate hospital. David was sent to the Union Military Prison at St.
Louis, Missouri, and then on to the Alton, Illinois Military Prison. It
is not known if Richard was sent to St. Louis first, but he was sent to
the Alton, Illinois Military Prison, a brutally cold and ill-equipped
place on an island in the river, so disreputable that it had been
condemned for use as a civilianprison over a decade before the war
began. He was received in the hospital at this prison on 24 May 1865.
He died in the hospital on 7 June 1865 of "chronic diarrhoea", as
attested by T.W. Johnson, surgeon, in the Morning Reports of Sick &
Attendants in the Military Prison Hospital, Alton, Illinois, Book#190,
report of June 8th. David was released on oath from the prison on 23 May
1865, and it is believed he stayed on at the prison hospital to care for
his dying father. Richard's name appears on a monument listing the
Confederate died who died at this military prison, but the exact location
of his grave in this cemetery is not known.
The Armstrong captures occurred after their unit participated in the
Battle of Pilot Knob on 22 September 1864 as part ofSterling Price's
Missouri campaign. From an essay about this little-known battle found at
"September 26 found about 1447 soldiers and volunteer citizens at Pilot
Knob from the followingcommands: the 14th Iowa Infantry (142), the 47th
Missouri Infantry (500), Company F of the 50th Missouri Infantry (80),
Battery H of the 2nd Missouri Light Artillery (134--6 guns), the 3rd
Missouri State Militia Cavalry (347), Company L of the 2nd Missouri State
Militia Cavalry (44), Company G of the 1st Missouri State Militia
Infantry, (serving as artillery, 58--7 guns) plus a number of white and
black civilian volunteers.
"For the Confederates, Fagan's Division (1,775) was composed of
Cabell's Brigade of 8 Arkansas Cavalries with a battery of 2 guns,
Slemon's Brigade (459) of 4 Arkansas Cavalries, Dobbin's Brigade (835) of
3 Arkansas Cavalries and a b 
Armstrong, Isaac Huntley (I7760)
118 Benjamin Franklin Paden, Jr
Birth: 1835 Alabama, USA
Death: Oct., 1922
Married Ge-no-sho Hogner; M/o Louis D. Paden, Sr.: Married (2)Lucinda Chualooky[dau. of Chualooky & Lucinda Baldridge]; M/o Jennie M.(Smith);Margaret A.(McKee); Lucinda; Susan A.; and Benj.F.Paden III. Son of Benj.F.Paden, Sr. & Elmira(Miller)Paden,Sr.

Burial: Paden Cemetery(Stilwell) Adair County Oklahoma, USA Plot: East, to Rock Springs
Record added: Aug 4 2001 By: Patricia Mechling

Paden, Benjamin Franklin Jr. (I5570)
119 Benjamin Paden«tab»«tab»Know all men by these presents that
«tab»To«tab»«tab»«tab»Benjamin Payton of Arnoha District
Jeremiah Horn«tab»«tab»in the Cherokee nation have this day del-
«tab»«tab»«tab»«tab»ivered to Jeremiah Horn 1 chestnut sorrel
mare and 1 chestnut sorrel mare blind of one eye 1 c_____
calf 20 head of hogs 2 beds 1 gun 1 mans saddle & bridle
1 side saddle and bridle with all my house hold and
kitchen furniture in trust to secure the payment of three
hundred dollars for which sum W. P. Rowles holds my
land & if there be any surplus after paying him the said
W. P. Rowles the aforesaid sum of three hundred dollars
the balance to be returned to me. But in making this
assignment as the design is to secure the payment of his
debt it is expressly understood that if the aforesaid B
Payton shall before the twenty fifth day of December 1835
have paid the above claim and taken up my land
then this instrument to be null and void otherwise
to be _____ remain in full force. In witness whereof
I have hereunto set my name and seal this 2nd
December 1833.«tab»«tab»Benj Paden Seal

J. Mackey
J. K. Bonsen
J. M. Gibbs

State of Tennessee«tab»«tab»Personally appeared be fore me Ichibed
In McMinn County«tab»«tab»R. Lusk clerk of the county court for the
«tab»«tab»«tab»«tab»County aforesaid the witniss ____ J. K.
Bonsen and J. M. Gibbs sub____ witness to the within
______ deed of trust who being first sworn de__
and say that they are aquainted with Benjamin
Peden _____ and that ___ acknowledge the same
in their presence to be his act and deed ___ the day it
bears date, ____ my hand and seal this 7\super th\nosupersub
day of Janurary 1834. «tab»«tab»I. R. Lusk Clk
«tab»«tab»«tab»«tab»«tab»By S. H. Jerden DC«tab»
Paden, Benjamin Franklin Sr. (I5554)
120 Bible in possession of Miss Minnye Harris, Fayetville, Arkansas. Source (S692)
121 Blind Sumner, Nola B. (I14445)
122 Blind Savannah (Gu-U-Li-Si) Inlow, Sylvester (I5796)
123 Block 02
Lot 72
Space 01 
Fowler, Frank Paul (I618)
124 Block 1E
Lot 51
Space 10 
Fowler, Jack Alonzo (I464)
125 Block 02
Lot 11
Space 09 
McALPIN, Nancy Eliza (I459)
126 Block 02
Lot 72
Space 02 
Rowan, Mittie Jane (I612)
127 Block 02
Lot 72A
Space 06 
Fowler, Nellie Dean (I469)
128 Block 03
Lot 30
Space 08 
Fowler, Hibernia Florence (I492)
129 Block 08
Lot 42
Space 06 
Fowler, Harriett Elysabeth (I489)
130 Block 09
Lot 80
Space 01 
Fowler, Ruby Lee (I613)
131 Block 09
Lot 80
Space 02 
Phillips, Clifford Allen (I622)
132 Block N
Lot 17
Grave 1 
Davis, Ruhanna (I119)
133 Block: 02
Lot: 11
Space: 05 
Plumlee, Sarah Jane (I521)
134 Block: 02
Lot: 11
Space: 06 
McALPIN, Samuel Newton (I520)
135 Body donated to School of Osteopathy. Paden, Frank A. (I29238)
136 Book Reitenauer Immigrants says "EVE, named in will, Unmarried in 1807".
Family F9724
137 Born 13 Aug 1896. Finley, Asa Phillip (I10492)
138 Born February 8th of 1921, Fletcher, Oklahoma to a family of 14 children. Survived by his spouse of 14 years, Dorothy Peden. He passed away in Placerville, Ca. at the age of 95. He was a highly decorated Lieutenant Colonel and served all over Europe as a bomber pilot and Chaplain during «u»World War II «/u». He retired after serving 32 years of service in the Air Force. After his retirement he served at Arcade Baptist church as hospital pastor for 11 years. He felt it a great privilege to serve his Lord all his many years. Contributions can be sent to Arcade Baptist Church to continue telling people of his Savior. Memorial service: Sept. 17th, 2:00 pm, at Arcade Baptist Church, Sacramento.
Published in The Sacramento Bee on Sept. 14, 2016 - See more at:
Peden, Earl Corley (I40391)
139 Born in a covered wagon crossing the plains.
Paden, Mary Lucy (I31314)
140 Born near Sorn Castle Peden, Rev. Alexander The Prophet (I16743)
141 Both Idras and his wife Mary were cremated, and their ashes spread on the banks of the Colorado river in Laughlin, Nevada. Hilton, Idras Newton (I11525)
142 buried 4 miles SSE of Cuba. Peden, James (I43014)
143 Buried beside Wife Selma Stone. Finley, Zedock Cullen "Zed" (I6087)
144 Buried in churchyard in Auchinleck, reburied (by enemies) at Gallow's Hill near Cumnock. Peden, Rev. Alexander The Prophet (I16743)
145 Burried: Mt. View Cemetery.

In about1890 he went to California to find a job and a place to move his family. He settled in Fresno and sent for them. His family consisted of his wife, Eva Nell Snyder, who was pregnant; his daughter, Laura, and his mother, Lucy P. Moore. They traveled by train. When the train stopped at a "Harvey House", Eva gave birth to a boy, but both she and the baby died. They were probably coming from Kansas, but I haven't tracked down where they actually died or where they are burried. Henry, Lucy, and Henry's second wife, Anna, are all burried at Mountain View Cemetery in Fresno, California. Henry was a carpenter by trade, and was in the carpenter's union. I have been told that there is a picture of him in the union hall in Fresno. 
Hull, Henry Clay (I21239)
146 By 1660 he became minister of New Luce in Galloway, this however was to be short lived due to his opposition to the Act passed by parliament which demanded that all ministers ordained since 1649 be confirmed by bishops, who were in turn answerable to the monarchy. This meant that effectively the monarchy controlled the church. To Peden and many other ministers this was unthinkable and because of their refusal to conform to this enforced episcopacy they were forced to relinquish their post, Peden leaving his ministry in 1663. This situation led Peden and a substantial number of other ministers in a similar position to hold their own meetings to worship, these meetings were called conventicles.

The persons attending these conventicles were called Covenanters as they were in support of the Covenant.

The Covenant was a document introduced in 1638 by Rev Alexander Henderson of Leuchars and Lord Johnston of Wariston on behalf of the Church of Scotland, landowners and the nobility. The Covenant was in response to Charles I and his opposition of the established Presbyterianism. Charles was attempting to impose episcopacy on the Scottish church like existed in England. The Covenant was placed on public display in Edinburgh (Greyfriars church) and drew over sixty thousand people who signed it declaring their support for Presbyterianism but also loyalty to the crown. In 1643 Charles I was overtaken by events beyond his control, namely the English Civil war. This resulted in him being dethroned and one Oliver Cromwell given the position of Lord Protector, he then went on to execute the King. Meanwhile the Scottish people opposed this and sided with Charles son who they saw as Charles II. Events changed though when the English parliamentarians saw Presbyterianism as what they would want to be imposed throughout Britain and were in agreement with the Covenant. This situation now meant that the Covenanters backed Oliver Cromwell. Subsequently though the English parliamentarians were to go back on their support of Presbyterianism. In the year 1650 Charles II landed in Scotland and quickly made known his support for the Covenant thereby placating the Scots, accordingly he was crowned in Scone one year later but was defeated by the English in battle which led to Cromwell establishing forts throughout Scotland to ensure his grip was maintained. One of these forts was at Ayr, near the harbour the remnants of this fort can be seen today. After Cromwell died Charles II gained power and promptly changed his mind about supporting Presbyterianism and initiated a process to give him control over the church. He introduced the Act which required ordained ministers to be confirmed by Bishops and so created the conditions that began the period when Covenanters were persecuted most.
Many kirks, especially in south west Scotland became empty, troops of dragoons were ever present on patrol to stop conventicles. People attending these meetings were taking a big risk, especially the non-conforming ministers, some who paid with their lives for their beliefs. Following the loss of his post and his livelihood Peden lived rough preaching at conventicles before being summonsed to appear at the Privy council in Edinburgh in 1666 for being said to have conducted baptisms and marriages, he failed to attend. He became an outlaw living and preaching in moors and hills in the Cumnock and southern Scotland area. Peden had by this time earned the title of prophet because of his so-called prophecies or premonitions. Peden is legendary when evicted from his pulpit by order of the privy council in 1663, he closed the door and knocked on it three times over with his bible stating
"I arrest the in my Master`s name that none ever enter the but such as come in the door as I have done"
None ever did until William Kyle was brought in by call of the people thirty years later. Peden was always sought by the dragoons and was captured in Knockdow near Ballantrae in1673 following a spell of freedom in Ireland. He was imprisoned on the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth where he spent four years before he was tried in Edinburgh in 1678 and was banished to the West Indies for the rest of his life to work as a slave. On boarding the ship that was to take him to america, Peden again prophecised that "the ship was not built that could take him there", again his prophecy became true. Peden persuaded the captain to allow him and sixty other covenanters to go free. Peden arrived back in Scotland in 1679 following the covenanters defeat at Bothwell Bridge. This was a very dangerous time for Peden and his associates and again to protect his friends and allies he fled to Ireland. He returned three years later, sleeping rough from place to place. By this time Peden`s reputation was legendary for his premonitions. There is another tale of how Peden and a group of covenanters were being closely pursued by dragoons, peden`s strength was failing at this time. He stopped and knelt down and said to his fellow covenanters
"Let us pray to the Lord". They did so though reluctantly, he prayed "Lord it is thine enemies day, hour and power, I ken fine they mustnae be idle but hast thou nae ither work for them than to send them after them that ha` the power to flee, for our strength has gaen. Cast thy cloak o`er auld Sandy, and thur pair things, and save us this ain time mair. we`ll keep it aye in rememberance and tell it to the commendation o` thy goodness, pity and compassion. Lord, hear my prayer."
It is said that almost immediately they were hidden from the dragoons in a cloud of mist. The dragoons were then called upon by a messenger before the mist cleared. Peden`s escapes and evasions of capture were almost magical and it seemed that no-one would be tempted by the one thousand merks placed on his head. He was also said to wear a mask to hide his identity, the mask is still in existence today.

In 1685 Peden knew his life was nearing it`s natural end, he spent much of his time hiding in now what is known locally as "Peden`s Cave" on the river Lugar.The photograph on this page show Peden`s cave as it is today.It sits not far downstream from Wallaces Cave in a location pefect for a fugitive hiding out, difficult to access and not easily found unless close to it.It has steps down into it but they are not for the faint hearted as one slip and a potentially serious fall would ensue. Following being outlawed for twenty two years, Peden left his cave and made his way to his brother`s farm close to death. He died a few days later on January 26th 1686. As he lay dying, the dragoons searched for him in outbuildings at the farm, miraculously again, they never found him.

Peden was buried in Auchinleck kirkyard but forty days later dragoons heard of his death and his place of burial. They exhumed his body and took it to Cumnock on horseback. They intended to hang his corpse on the gallows as a warning to others, this did not happen though as the plan was upset with the intervention of the Earl of Dumfries, he feared an uprising from the people of Cumnock and Peden was buried at the foot of the gallows as a final mark of disgrace. However, as a mark of respect for the dead minister many years later, the site around Alexander Peden`s grave was to become the site for Cumnock`s new cemetery. A headstone was erected by local admirers. Cumnock`s old cemetry as it is now known was Peden`s final resting place and many have visited his grave. Although a respectable resting place it was not Peden`s wish to be buried here. He is reputed to have said "carry me to Airds Moss and bury me besides Rirchie". He was of course referring to the Rev. Richard Cameron who died in the Battle if Airds Moss in July 1680.

Peden, Rev. Alexander The Prophet (I16743)
147 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Paden, Donald Edward (I1)
148 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Young, Aurora Elizabeth (I4296)
149 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Paden, Donald Edward (I1)
150 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Sanders, Riley Elizabeth (I4308)

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